There have been many accounts of the Prince of Wales’s visit to North America in 1860 which caused a frenzy of excitement in the British Colonies and the United States. Most of them are easily available on the internet and I have provided links to some of them in the Resources section. The most complete narrative of the visit I know of is in Pollard’s 1898 book. Fortunately, thoughtful UPEI has scanned this rarity and the relevant chapter is available in the link below. Recently Harry Holman has posted two very interesting essays on aspects of the visit on his Sailstrait blog which I highly recommend. Links to these are also available. You may ask why I have bothered to put my oar in and present yet another account of this remarkable visit. My interest has, at this time, moved from the person of the Prince to the topography of the City he visited. The Island writers, whose accounts are listed below, concentrated on people and events, and rarely mention the ground on which all this took place. With apologies to the Prince, I want to present you with the remarks of two outside witnesses – Sir Gardner D. Engleheart, the Private Secretary of the Prince’s “advisor,” the Duke of Newcastle, who published privately a journal of the trip, and as well, quotes by Robert Cellem, who published an anthology of the Prince’s visit garnered from various international media. The quotes I select will be in italics and I will identify the author in brackets at the end of each quote. I will also quote from Pollard from time to time to fill in episodes not mentioned by the writers from outside the province, and will put his words in italics as well.
There is a lot of contemporary visual evidence in the form of photographs, engravings, maps and charts that in particular, and generally, illustrate these several days. I thought that it would be a good diversion from the months of documenting the evolution of Island maps on my blog, and to step aside and witness and celebrate this one aspect of Island topography – three Royal days on our streets and soil.
A Prince Visits!
The year 1860 brought with it excitement of the most elevated kind as the Prince of Wales, Edward Albert, was sent on a North American tour by his exasperated parents who were at their wits ends trying to deal with his emerging depraved and profligate teenage activities.
Here he is, looking a little cocky, as photographed by John Jabez Edwin Mayal in 1859 (National Portrait Gallery).
And here are his deeply anxious parents, brooding over what might be done to curb his sybaritic tendencies and make him aware of his future duties as king (Photo: Bonhams).
Taking the best advice, they decided to send him, to begin with, on a tour of the British Colonies in North America, ostensibly to dedicate the new Victoria Bridge in Montreal, followed by a jaunt through the New England states to acquaint him with the Americans, who were on the eve of civil war. Here is one of the maps published in the book written by a member of the Royal Party, the Duke of Newcastle’s private secretary, that shows the complete North American itinerary.
Map of the Route of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, Lithographed by James Wyld, Geographer to the Queen, 457 Strand, London, from Engleheart, John Gardner Dillman (1823-1923), Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales through British North America: and his visit to the United States; 10th July to 15th November, 1860, Bradbury & Evans, London, 1861. Library of Congress F1013 .E25.
A Time of Intense Internal and External Preparation
Prior to this visit, the British Government kindly and thoughtfully intervened to make sure there were suitable cannon and armaments for the militia to create all the effects required in royal salutes.
During the month of July on the application of the Commander-in-chief, the Secretary of War forwarded three long 9 pounder guns, together with equipments and a supply of ammunition. These were intended as a Saluting Battery for the fortress at Charlottetown, and were preparatory to other preparations to the reception of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Victoria. One hundred stand of cavalry appointments were subsequently received, these consisted of swords, pistols and accoutrements, also a supply of ammunition for small arms. (Pollard p. 110).
A key noise-making facility, Fort Edward (named after the Prince’s grandfather after whom the island was named) was on the Fanningbank estate and prior to the royal visit was in rather shabby condition, as this photograph shows (Photo: internet). It was tarted up for the Royal Visit and the first welcoming shots were fired from its battery.
As well Government House was completely re-clad with cedar shingles after it beautiful original finish of horizontal planks that simulated grooved masonry was torn off. All over the city anything that related to the Administration that could be fixed up and repainted was given the full treatment.
It comes as a shock to discover that the British Government, after consultation with the local authorities, carried on its own preparation for the visit, importing both men and materials.
On the 6th of August, H.M.S. Cossack (16 guns) arrived in port, having on board a detachment of the 62nd Regiment under the command of Captain Wilkinson, consisting of 3 lieutenants, 6 sergeants and 80 rank and file, bringing with them the Regimental Band of twenty-eight instruments and Queen’s colors. This detachment was dispatched here to perform garrison duty during the sojourn of the Prince (Pollard p. 111).
The British Navy was leaving nothing up to chance. Everything would go well.
The Prince arrived in Charlottetown Harbour, on the Hero, one of the biggest and best ships in the Royal Navy, in the midst of wind and rain (Photo: internet.)
We left Pictou early on the following morning 9 August. for Prince Edward Island. The squadron now consisted of Hero, Nile, Ariadne, Valorous, Cossack, and Flying Fish (Engleheart).
This engraving accompanies Engleheart’s account and gives a rare panorama of the harbour with the great ships of the Royal Navy competing for attention with the spire of the Cathedral. On the extreme left is the only known view in old records of Government House seen from the water.
We can clearly see the stage of action in this detail from Bayfield’s 1843 chart of the harbour. Days before the Prince’s actual arrival British naval ships entered the harbour to check things out. They were followed by several other boats from the region, filled with wildly enthusiastic supporters of the Prince. As the moment approached the warships were decked out in naval style and the harbour was alive with movement and colour. The Hero, bearing the Prince and his party, moved into the harbour and dropped anchor in deep water.
About 11 o’clock the booming of artillery at Fort Edward, proclaimed the squadron bearing the Royal visitor to be approaching the harbor. There was hurrying to and fro; those whose duty it was to receive the Prince assembled on Queen’s Wharf where His Highness was to disembark. From the landing stage a walk nicely carpeted reached to a carriage in waiting, on each side of which the guard of honor was posted. … The formation of which was, ranks facing inward, while the officers and colours took post in the interval with the band in the rear. The Volunteer Companies, not told off for other duty, flanked the guard of honor in the same order up Queen Street.
At ten minutes of two o’clock, Royal Salutes thundered forth simultaneously from all the warships in port, by which signal the Prince was proclaimed to have gone on board his barge en route to the landing stage: a few minutes later the booming of artillery at George’s Battery announced His Royal Highness to have landed. As soon as the Prince – who wore the dress uniform of a colonel in the army – stepped on the wharf, the guard of honor presented arms and the band played “God save the Queen,” upon which His Highness raised his feathered hat. … His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor then received the Prince, and in the name of the people, welcomed His Royal Highness to the Island (Pollard pp. 112-114).
This detail from the Bayfield map of Charlottetown Harbour contains all the locations, on land and sea, mentioned in the preceding descriptions of the topography of the Prince’s visit.
The Prince landed at twelve, in doubtful weather; and, traversing the one long street, lined as usual with cheering spectators, and decorated with spruce arches, reached Government House, which is well situated close to the water (Engleheart).
From early in July, preparations were sounding everywhere throughout the city. Queen, Prince, Kent and Water Streets were adorned with eight beautiful arches (Pollard p. 111).
(Photo: detail of PARO Acc3218-48)
The route through Charlottetown would have gone up Queen Street and turned south on Kent Street. This detail (photographed through glass) from Robert Harris’ 1864 map of the city (CCAG) shows the route.
Driving up Queen Street the Royal Party would have come to Queens Square on their right. Just a few years before, George Hubbard, an artist living in Charlottetown had painted a large panorama of the Square in watercolour. It has survived, and is in the Heritage Foundation collection, but in terrible shape. And yet, in this view, the whole Square comes alive wonderfully!
As the Royal party drove down Kent Street they would have been greeted, on their right, with this drive leading to a fine house painted by Fanny Bayfield (PEIMHF) The Fanningbank estate can be seen in the left background. This was the Prince’s vista as he approached his destination.
Arriving at the bottom of Kent Street they would have passed over the bridge at the end of Government Pond, driven through the fine gateway, passed the Guard House and moved up the drive to the great Ionic south porch. Frank Leslie’s woodcut from the Illustrated Newspaper of September 1, 1860 clearly illustrates this moment.
And there, on a little rise, sat dignified Government House, its Palladian severity softened by the verandas on three sides. Its view was to the harbour mouth and the Prince would have seen it, even through the driving rain, as his ship sailed into the harbour.
Government House, Illustrated London News, August 4, 1860.
A First Rainy Afternoon
The afternoon was so thoroughly wet that no one stirred out till late in the afternoon, when the Prince rode. A dinner party of thirty closed the day’s proceedings. Lieut.-Governor Dundas and his wife are very agreeable people, and lately married. Charlotte Town is a long straggling place, built almost entirely of wood, and presents few objects of interest (Engleheart).
The author of this account is a little hard on Charlottetown. Aside from the impressive Colonial Building in Queen’s Square, a number of church spires pierced the sky, the largest of them on the Roman Catholic Cathedral dominated the entire landscape as can be seen in this 1860s watercolour by Robert Harris CCAG).
Queen’s Square at that time, despite Hubbard’s intimate pre-visit view (above), was graced by a number of fine buildings, from left to right, Saint Paul’s Anglican Church, Province House called the Colonial Building in those days, the Plaw/Smith Market and in the right foreground, John Plaw’s 1811 Courthouse, now serving as Town Hall for the City of Charlottetown. We can still see the results of the huge amount of tidying up that had been done for the Royal Visit by the time this view was taken in August of 1862.
The Royal Levee of August 10
The Royal schedule progressed the next morning with a levee, at which the most significant people in the colony would be presented to the Prince. Ushers would have had to keep busy moving 300 people through the receiving line.
A levee was held at eleven at Government House, 10 August. at which 300 attended; after which H. R. H. proceeded to the Province Buildings, to receive addresses (Engleheart).
A special photographer, Wellington A. Chase was brought over from Halifax to immortalise the moment.
In this detail, posed in front of the south portico of Government House, is the Prince (third from right) and his entourage. George Dundas, the Lieutenant Governor, in full regalia, and Lady Dundas, looking down modestly, are in the centre of the picture.
The Ceremonies at the Colonial Building
After the levee at Government House the Royal party went to the Colonial Building for more ceremony, speeches of welcome, inspection of the Militia, and the formal presentation of the members of the Government. The Illustrated London News had sent along their own artist, and this is the woodcut that was published in London of the occasion.
It is a splendid composition showing the massed crowd on bleachers, on the right, the Colonial Building flying a Royal Ensign, beyond that, the Plaw/Smith Round Market, and beyond that, John Plaw’s 1811 Courthouse which was then serving as Town Hall, Charlottetown having been incorporated in 1855.
Of very great interest for a variety of reasons, the foreground is dominated by a large ceremonial wigwam with members of the Mi’kmaq community gathered in respect. It is the wigwam of the chief and he is surrounded by his family. These were the same who had enthusiastically paddled out in their canoes to meet the Royal Party when it arrived the previous day. A number of favourable remarks were made about the Mi’kmaq during this visit, particularly about the women in their colourful bead-encrusted costumes. Various people (see Radforth, Chapter 6) were fascinated with the Mi’kmaq because their position on the Island, physically and socially, was a topic of hot debate. Their ultimate status, relegated to reservations – a new concept – was in the mind of a variety of people and groups. Engleheart, sensitive to the issues of the day, includes two engravings of Mi’kmaq women in his book:
Of topographical and architectural interest in this long straggling place, built almost entirely of wood, and presents few objects of interest, is the mention of visiting the new Saint Dunstan’s College for a panoramic view of the city from its great belvedere, as seen in this detail of a photo in Henry Cundall’s photo album (PARO).
In the afternoon the Prince rode on horseback. I drove out with Stephen Swabey, and ascended the tower of the Roman Catholic College, which commands a very fine panoramic view over Prince Edward Island (Engleheart).
The Royal Promenade Among Many Well-wishers
Late in the day there was a quite wonderful mingling of Prince and people on the grounds of Government House. Pollard (p. 115) says, … Retiring to Government House, His Royal Highness – attended by his suite – graced by his presence a promenade held on the beautiful ground, on which was assembled the elite of the city, and the distinguished strangers whom the Prince’s visit had attracted to Charlottetown. The band was also in attendance.
This moment was captured by Wellington Chase in a large format photograph that survived under the most unusual circumstances.
This large very damaged but unique photograph was found on the sodden bottom of a trunk full of books on the soaking clay floor of a cellar.
Time for a Royal Canter in the Country
The next item in the way of entertainment was a turn at equestrian exercise, or a ride around the Royalty. The Prince, the Governor, and two or three other gentlemen vaulted to their saddles and passed along Kent Street at a brisk trot, taking the Saint Peter’s Road to the Mount Edward Road as far as the intersection of the Royalty Road, thence through to the Malpeque Road and back to the ground they had left, where they arrived a few minutes before the sun had passed below the horizon (Pollard, pp. 115-116).
We have a map of the area where they had their exercise. It is from the very damaged Lake Map of 1863 (UPEI Collection). At some time work will be done on this detail of the map to indicate their route along the roads that are not named. The Royalty was the area to the north of the city, divided into east and west, that was set aside for the expansion of the city in time. So accurate was this choice made, in 1765, that the city quite naturally flowed into the designated areas and now forms Greater Charlottetown.
The Ball at the Colonial Building
The visit came to a close with a ball at the Colonial Building which had been completely redecorated by having its Upper and Lower Chambers turned into a salon and ballroom. It was crowded, tight, highly energised and even the Prince seemed to have a good time, dancing, in the course of the evening, with a number of ladies. There are several detailed accounts of this crowded euphoric event, including a good one by Pollard. This is how Engleheart describes the various events, taking us back to the harbour filled with the great warships, now ready to move on to the wonders of Quebec.
11 August. the island. At 7.30 there was a dress dinner; and in the evening a ball at the Province Buildings. Some Micmac Indians grouped themselves on the lawn, dressed in their usual gay attire; the headgear of the women recalling the tall caps of Normandy. …
The Moment of Farewell
The next day was the time of farewells.
… At 1 P. M. the Prince embarked. The Lieut.-Governor and Mrs. Dundas accompanied him to the ship, and lunched on board. The harbour presented the unusual sight of five men-of war, four English and one French; the latter the Pomone of fifty guns, Commodore Marquis de Montaignac, late a Newfoundland fishery commissioner. We got under weigh at 3 P. M. in heavy rain (Engleheart).
So ends the Royal visit to Charlottetown, at a time in its history when political upheavals were mounting and colonial finances were in an appalling state.
A lingering part of the city decorations…
On the corner of Queen and Grafton Streets you can go and touch the last piece of decoration, set up by Theophilus DesBrisay in front of his drugstore, to celebrate the Prince’s visit. It is the old upright cannon barrel which once held a flagpole. It is held in the greatest affection by the people of Charlottetown, and the love it receives can be seen in the sheen of metal polished by loving caresses (Photo PARO Acc3466-HF18.104.22.168).
On the removal of the ordinance from the blockhouse in 1856, … an 18 pr. gun was allowed to slip from the sling and roll over the bank of the fortress to the water’s edge, where it remained for several years, but in 1860, during July, when all were preparing for the reception of the Prince, the late Theophilus DesBrisay, Esq., had the gun brought to Charlottetown and placed in the ground, in an upright position with the muzzle upwards, at the north angle of Queen and Grafton Streets: a stout flagstaff of considerable length was placed in he bore of the gun, from the summit of which the Union Jack was displayed during the three days sojourn of His Royal Highness; and though the staff has been removed many years, the gun remains erect, as a memento of the harbor’s fortifications, and a memorial to the visit of the Prince of Wales to Prince Edward Island (Pollard p. 118).
(Photo: City of Charlottetown, Natalie Munn)
Here are the entire accounts of the Charlottetown episode from Engleheart’s and Cellem’s accounts.
Engleheart, [Sir] Gardner D., Journal of the progress of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales through British North America; and his visit to the United States, 10th July to 15th November, 1860. Privately printed at the Chiswick Press. This selection was obtained from the Library of Congress at this address: http://www.loc.gov/resource/lhbtn.43560
A photographic copy, of very high quality of the entire book is available at this site of the HathiTrust Digital Library:
We left Pictou early on the following morning 9 August. for Prince Edward Island. The squadron now consisted of Hero, Nile, Ariadne, Valorous, Cossack, and Flying Fish. The Nile grounded in coming up, and did not enter the harbour of Charlotte Town, but proceeded at once with the Valorous to Gaspé, en route for Quebec. The Prince landed at twelve, in doubtful weather; and, traversing the one long street, lined as usual with cheering spectators, and decorated with spruce arches, reached Government House, which is well situated close to the water. It accommodated all the party except Teesdale, Grey, and myself, who were lodged at Mr. Wellington Nelson’s. The afternoon was so thoroughly wet that no one stirred out till late in the afternoon, when the Prince rode. A dinner party of thirty closed the day’s proceedings. Lieut.-Governor Dundas and his wife are very agreeable people, and lately married. Charlotte Town is a long straggling place, built almost entirely of wood, and presents few objects of interest.
A levee was held at eleven at Government House, 10 August. at which 300 attended; after which H. R. H. proceeded to the Province Buildings, to receive addresses. In the afternoon the Prince rode on horseback. I drove out with Stephen Swabey, and ascended the tower of the Roman Catholic College, which commands a very fine panoramic view over the Island. At 7.30 there was a dress dinner; and in the evening a ball at the Province Buildings.
Some Micmac Indians grouped themselves on the lawn, dressed in their usual gay attire; the headgear of the women recalling the tall caps of Normandy.
At 1 P. M. the Prince embarked. The Lieut.- Governor and Mrs. Dundas accompanied him to the ship, and lunched on board. The harbour presented the unusual sight of five men-of war, four English and one French; the latter the Pomone of fifty guns, Commodore Marquis de Montaignac, late a Newfoundland fishery commissioner. We got under weigh [sic] at 3 P. M. in heavy rain.
And so ends H. R. H.’s visit to the “Lower Provinces;” a visit which, it is to be hoped, has done much good in drawing forth decided evidence of the loyalty of the colonists to the Queen, and of their affectionate attachment to the mother country, and to the institutions under which they enjoy the freest personal and political liberty.
Cellem Robert, Visit of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales to the British North American Provinces and United States in the Year 1860, Compiled from the Public Journals, Henry Rowsell, Toronto, 1861. Pp. 108-111.
… To the relief of all, Charlottetown was reached at half- past eleven o’clock.
Soon after daylight in the morning, two guns from the blockhouse announced that the Royal squadron was in sight. All the people turned quickly out of their houses, and the streets were rapidly filled with an excitable, anxious, wondering, expectant crowd. Charlottetown did indeed present a contrast to that furnished by it on the occasion of the last visit. Then it looked like a quiet Canadian town. On Thursday every thing was reversed. For a week past the people had been pouring in from all parts of the island, until it is estimated not less than from fifteen to twenty thousand strangers, or one-fourth of the entire population, were present. The clouds hung thick and heavy in the sky; a strong wind sprung up, and about nine o’clock the rain once more commenced to descend. There was much discussion respecting the hour the Prince would land, but that at length was settled by the arrival of a messenger from the Hero, who named one o’clock as the time. Soon after twelve o’clock the Royal vessel entered the harbour, followed by the Ariadne, saluted by H. B. M. steamer Valorous and Cossack, and H. I. M. steamer Pomone, 36 guns. Then, together with H. B. M. surveying vessel the Margaretha Stephenson, sent their men to the masts, who cheered loudly as the Prince descended into the royal barge. His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, George Dundas, Esq., had proceeded on board the Hero previously, and left in company with the Prince.
The wharf at which the landing was effected is a very spacious one, extending far into the water, so that the upper end of it had alone to be guarded. Assembled upon it were Chief Justice Hodgson and Mr. Justice Peters; the Marquis de Montaignac, Captain of the Pomone; Captain Vansittart, Ariadne; Captain Aldham, Valorous; and Captain Hancock, Margaretha Stevenson; the members of the Legislature, including the Premier, the Hon. Charles Palmer ; the Sheriff of Queen’s county, Mr. Duncan; the Mayor, the Hon. T. H. Howland, and Corporation; the Colonial Secretary, Hon. Mr. Pope; the Attorney-General, Hon. Mr. Hanraham; the Archdeacon, Dr. Reid, of St. Eleanor; the Roman Catholic Bishop, Dr. McIntyre, and the clergy of other denominations; the Provincial Treasurer, Mr. George Wright; the Comptroller of Customs, Mr. Longworth; the Postmaster-General; the Registrar of Deeds, Mr. Crawford; the President of Legislative Council, Hon. Charles Young ; the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Hon. Donald Montgomery; the Governor’s Aide-de-camp, Hon. Colonel Gray and Colonel Swaby; the officer in command of the troops, Lieutenant Colonel Longworth. By the side of the wharf a company of the 62nd regiment was drawn up, and on Queen street Major Davies’ troop of volunteer cavalry were posted, who, in company with the band of the 62nd, headed the procession. The guard of honour at the landing place was Captain Lea’s volunteer company; at Government House, Captain Murphy’s. Several other volunteer companies, with the assistance of St. Andrew’s, St. Patrick’s, Masonic, and Temperance Societies lined the streets. Before reaching his carriage His Royal Highness had to walk a considerable distance along the wharf to near the first arch at the foot of Queen Street. He was loudly cheered by the people in the streets, on the house-tops, on the decks and rigging of the numerous vessels which crowded the beautiful harbour of Charlottetown.
For a time it seemed that the weather was about to clear up. A solitary gleam of sunshine for a few moments managed to penetrate the dense canopy of clouds which dulled the brilliancy of all things; but in the struggle darkness got the better of the light, and shut off the hope-giving rays.
The arch placed at the street end of the wharf was built of evergreens, surmounted by a picture of Britannia sitting on a sea horse, in the act of ruling the waves, and by two large carved lions. The motto it bore was—” Welcome to Prince Edward Isle.” On a second arch festoons of roses were suspended from the hands of lovely-looking ladies in wood, who were, from the trumpets at their mouths, supposed to proclaim the words written underneath—”Welcome our future King.” Another arch still in Queen street, bore figures of two volunteers, with guns and knapsacks all complete, and it was upon this erection that the words—”May thy visit prove Great Britain’s heir a closer bond with home.” Opposite Queen’s square, in which are the Provincial buildings, images of two Scotch grenadiers appeared, also surmounting an arch. The circular-pointed market house, an ugly building, had been planted round with spruce trees, and so hidden with bunting and flowers, that it was scarcely known. The post-office too had been decorated with equal success. In the square was the tent of an Indian chief, who with his warriors and squaws paddled out to meet the Prince, and joined their voices with that of the applauding throng. Soon after passing the square the procession moved down Kent street to the Government House. In Cochrane [Rochford] square a large number of Sunday school children, about a couple of thousand, were assembled, who sang the National Anthem and gave three cheers for the Prince, each waving a white handkerchief, as the hurrahs were uttered. The arch immediately opposite the Government House was the most beautiful of the whole. From the hands of two dancing girls flowers were suspended; and stars formed of bayonets, pikes, and swords were inserted in the pillars. His Royal Highness upon alighting immediately entered the house, and was seen no more that day, save by the Governor and his immediate attendants.
The decorations, of Charlottetown showed a full complement of bunting, of floral crowns, of evergreen decorations, of spruce trees, of mottoes, and of those hundreds of little things which go towards making a great display. The Chief Justice had a very nice little mottoe—” In hoc signo spes mea,” —the sign being the Prince’s plume. The scene from the wharf was very grand. Union [Queen] street is very wide, and rises gradually from the water, so that for upwards of a mile the mass of people could be seen, the narrow lane preserved by the militia being distinctly visible all the way up.
A large volunteer force was in Charlottetown. There were several companies, truly, from the interior turned out, and there were at least five hundred men upon the ground. The volunteer cavalry were excellent; their horses equal to those of the regular troops, and ridden by men who knew well how to manage them. There was not much diversity in the uniform of the rifle companies, who kept the ground well, and displayed great steadiness in marching.
Great preparations had been made for an illumination in Charlottetown, and some hundreds of candles and gas devices were lighted and rockets fired off, but the torrents of rain which descended spoiled every thing except the grass and the foliage. All dinner, a ball and levee are to follow the reception described, and the Prince will leave to-morrow for Gaspe, where the Arabian will meet him, and where he will meet the Governor General.
Fother Point, Tuesday Morning, August 14.
At Shediac the “surplus population”—the crowd of excited beings who had been to see the Prince in Charlottetown and who had seen him, will henceforth keep his memory enshrined in their hearts, and the day on which they saw him marked in the calendar.
Campbell, Duncan, History of Prince Edward Island, Bremner Brothers, Charlottetown, 1875, Chapter 8.
Cellem Robert, Visit of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales to the British North American Provinces and United States in the Year 1860, Compiled from the Public Journals, Henry Rowsell, Toronto, 1861. pp. 108-111.
Cordoba, R. J. de, The Prince’s Visit: A Humorous Description of the Tour of His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, Through the United States of America, in 1860, Leopold Classic Library 2016
Engleheart, [Sir] Gardner D., Journal of the progress of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales through British North America; and his visit to the United States, 10th July to 15th November, 1860. Privately printed at the Chiswick Press, pp. 24-27.
Holman, Harry, “Dancing till dawn – another look at the 1860 visit of the Prince of Wales”, Sailstrait, 2019.
Holman, Harry, “Drunk and Disorderly: the Royal Visit of 1860,” Sailstrait, 2019.
Pollard, James B., Historical Sketch of the Eastern Regions of New France, from the Various Dates of their Discoveries to the Surrender of Louisburg, 1758 – also- Prince Edward Island: Military and Civil, John Coombs, Charlottetown, 1898. pp. 110-118.
Radforth, Ian, Royal Spectacle: The 1860 Visit of the Prince of Wales to Canada and the United States, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2012. Pp. 212-216.
Rider, Peter E., Charlottetown A History, Museum & Heritage Prince Edward Island and Canadian Museum of Civilisation, 2009. pp. 84-85
Woods, N.A., The Prince of Wales in Canada and the United States, Bradbury & Evans, London, 1861, pp. 67-70.