French and Acadian Domestic Architecture: Part I – Louisbourg

This post is the first in several about French and Acadian houses in the Maritime Region during the years of the Eighteenth Century that ended in the deportations of 1755 and ’58. In Part I of this post, I will focus on the evidence from Louisbourg. But first it is necessary to provide a brief historical note on France of the Rococo period and of the nature of French interests in New France.

First, I begin with a quick overview of the Enlightenment, born in the salons of France and spreading to other European countries. The developments that took place in all the arts, architecture, painting, sculpture, music, literature, philosophy, and science were all astonishing and opened the door to the modern world.

The king of France who ruled during the time when Ile Saint Jean was a designated colony was Louis XV. He ruled from 1715 until his death in 1774. Having inherited the throne from his Great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of 5, he had to wait until he reached his majority on 15 February 1723 before he took the reins of power. Until then the country was overseen by a Regent. Louis XV was a beloved king who didn’t do much of anything except to seek pleasure and create beautiful things.

 

Madame de Pompadour: Elegance, wit, and intellect.

King Louis XV had an extraordinary mistress who was given the title of the Marquise de Pompadour. Of middle-class origins she was exceptionally intelligent, charming and determined, and in her hospitable rooms the great intellectuals of the day gathered and created the modern mind.

The Enlightenment manifested itself in several ways as different groups of intellectuals, called philosophes, met in different drawing rooms or salons to feast and push the boundaries of thinking to new limits. The most spectacular and tangible success of this time in France was the Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts). Published in fits and starts between 1751 and 1772, it was the work of the greatest experts of the day in all areas of knowledge.

A style of decoration was developed during this reign that, for the first time, created comprehensive arrangements of furniture for the salon and the bedroom in a style known today as Rococo or Louis Quinze (see above), characterised by s-curved or cabriole legs. For the first time official furniture was human scale, easily moved to form conversation groups and was as comfortable as it was elegant. Fine examples of this kind of furniture were brought to the New World to furnish official rooms in centres of administration like Quebec and Louisbourg.

However, the styles of furniture that went into the homes of the working class and the peasants were completely different and derived from country French furniture of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, such as you can see in this painting by the LeNain brothers. Everything is unornamented wood simply joined, with rattan seats and backs.

 

Louis or Antoine LeNain, Peasant Interior with an Old Flute Player, 1642, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas.

 

This way of life in France was the background and controlling influence for all the settlement in the New World. Because of incompetence and neglect this would all end in disaster in the Seven Years’ War when, by the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1763, France lost its possessions in Canada. The Acadians were especially victimised, deported and scattered in British North America and Europe. Did Louis XV care? Probably not. Life at court, filled with petty intrigues, was everything.

 

The Attractions of the New World

Always floating above the new world, like a miasmic narcotic, was the wild hope that it would provide a short cut to the riches of the East – silks and porcelain in particular – that had driven explorers since the Middle Ages to import them for the incredibly remunerative European markets. On a more realistic level there was the promise of endless territories for expansion and exploitation, and in particular the trapping of the beaver for its fashionable pelt and the fisheries with endless supplies of cod to eat on the fasting days, and from whales, blubber reduced to oil to burn in lamps at night.

By the time we reach the period of the Eighteenth Century in which we are interested, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Newfoundland fisheries, and the Grand Banks beyond, had been exploited for centuries, starting probably with the Basques. At the very beginning of the century this great map of North America shows everything that was known about the shape of the land and the locations of the best fishing areas.

 

1715 – Herman Moll, To the Right Honourable/ John Lord Sommers/ Baron of Evesham in ye county of Worcester/ President of Her Majesty’s most/ Honourable Privy Council &c./ This map of/ North America. / according to ye newest and most exact observa/ tions is most humbly dedicated by your Lordship’s/ most humble servant/ Herman Moll geographer/. Contributor Names: Moll, Herman, -1732., Lens, Bernard, 1682-1740, Vertue, George, 1684-1756, Bowles, John, 1701-1779., Engraved map coloured, 58 x 97 cm. London, Printed for I. Bowles, sold by H. Moll, 1715?, Library of Congress, G3300 1715 .M6.

The cartouche is very grand, full of heraldic and ethnographic detail with indigenous people carefully depicted. This map was so important that a special artist, B. Lens, and an engraver, G. Vertue, were hired just for the grand cartouche. I believe this represents a serious attempt on the part of the cartographer to disseminate ethnographic knowledge of the New World. Its size and position on the map support this.

Moll’s great map is also famous because of the very detailed engraving of a typical fishing station in Newfoundland, whose general arrangement of wharf, landing place and processing building was found in major ports in the whole Atlantic region.

A few years after Moll – we are not certain of the date – there is a map in the French National Archives that very precisely lays out the various fishing grounds that are to be found in the Gulf, Newfoundland and off the shores of Acadia/Nova Scotia. By the time this was drawn the process of colonising Ile Saint Jean was well begun and as you can see the Island has a very recognisable shape, very unusual in the maps of that time.

 

[1725-35 c] Carte du fleuve et du Golfe de St. Laurens, N[ot]a, on fait la peche Sur le grand Banc et Sur les autres marquez par de petit points, coloured manuscript, 47.5 x 78.5 cm, Collection d’Anville, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Accession: ark:/12148/btv1b53053059w.

 

The appearance of architecture in the New World.

Since the Seventeenth Century there had been some very extensive colonising in Quebec, the administrative centre of New France, and in this cartouche from Franquelin’s 1702-11 map of the region there is a very detailed drawing, touched up with colour and gilt, of the city of Quebec – the lower and the upper towns – glowing in the sun of success and favour.

 

Cartouche from 1702-11 – Jean-Baptiste Franquelin, Carte/ de la/ Nouvelle France/ ou est compris/ La Nouvelle Angleterre, / Nouvelle Yorc, / Nouvelle Albanie, / Nouvelle Suede, / La Pennsilvanie, / La Virginie, La Floride &c., manuscript on parchment, decorated with gold and colour; 47.5 x 63.5 cm, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Accession: ark:/12148/cb40577015h.

There is a great deal of detail to be seen in the city view, no doubt dripping with fantasy to impress royal eyes. A more realistic view of Quebec is found in this sketch from a few years later. It is a real sketch, not a fantasy vision for royal eyes.

Anonymous, Veüe de la Ville de quebec Capitale de la Nouvelle France dans l’Amerique septentrionale, 25 x 65 cm, Bibliothèque nationale de France, bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb41197540z.

 

Looking at it closely we see the actual distinction between the lower and upper town, and at the water’s edge particularly, the kinds of houses that the people lived in. There are many such cityscapes to be found in various archives and they are an artform in themselves, full of detail about urban architecture and evolution.

Returning to the Franquelin cartouche (above) showing the celestial city we see at the bottom in very large scale and much detail an assemblage of indigenous people, who would later in the century become the the focus of the concept of the “Noble Savage” that would greatly influence European art and literature. Here, because it was the convention of the day in art, they all stand nobly, their poses taken from the classical statues from which the artists of the time learned to draw the human figure. These very large-scaled drawings of the aboriginals also brought to the fore the Catholic Church’s great mission to convert them all to Christianity and in the process destroy in every possible way, their history, culture, religion and their relationship to the environment, so sensitive in its animistic nature. This is a fact often glossed over by writers who are not aware of the drastic rejections and commitments upon which conversion was based. The indigenous people were also exploited by the fur traders and also manipulated and coerced as fighters to help settle disputes with other indigenous groups in favour of French ambition.

 

Sailing down to Louisbourg we encounter the fishing architecture of L‘isle Percée.

On a fantasy journey we have just begun from the glories of Quebec all the way to Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Cape Breton), we are shocked when we approach Percé Rock and see the complexity of the settlement that has grown up serving the fisheries and the lives of the people who manage it.

 

 

This detail is taken from another extraordinary bird’s eye view by the great cartographer Jean-Baptiste Franquelin of New France in the first flush of its glory. It is the approach to t l’Isle Percée, now a tourist destination, but in the late Seventeenth Century a fishing haven, packed with wharves, processing buildings and a village served with a church.

 

Franquelin, Jean-Baptiste (1650-17..). Cartographe présumé, Rade de l’isle Percée, 48,5 x 87,5 cm, 1686, Bibliothèque nationale de France, bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb436373331.

 

Everywhere you look in this map there are signs of fishing, but the Catholic Church is also very much present, as it is in every French settlement of any size.

 

 

These buildings, although relatively close to the centre of power in Quebec, nonetheless are similar to those found in Acadia, as France was the source of all inspiration for New World architecture.

 

Domestic Architecture in New France and Acadia

The region that concerns me in the study of architecture in the New World is what we now call the Maritime Provinces, specifically Ile Saint Jean. But the greatest number of settlements were to be found in Acadia, now Nova Scotia, everywhere that marshland could be reclaimed to form the basis of rich agriculture to support the fisheries and the beaver trade. In the Bay of Fundy area, all along the many great salt marshes, there had been settlement by the French since the Seventeenth Century. The English had also set their views on what was generally called Acadia and there was a complicated history of royal land deals that had French settlers living on, and developing in the most spectacular fashion, land which was claimed by England.

For over 75 years the French land engineers reclaimed thousands of acres of salt marsh and turned it into the most productive agricultural land the region has ever seen. This was achieved by building sea walls with valves that allowed the rain and snow that washed the salt out of the land to drain into the sea at low tide, but which locked tightly when the incoming tide pushed against them. This technology, ultimately learned from the Dutch, was brought by French settlers who had used the technique in their home wetlands. The farmers and land reclaimers built their houses close to the water in small settlements, as can be seen in the first illustration in this post.

 

For those wishing more information on the grander forms of architecture built in New France, in earlier posts I discussed the nature of fortifications which were absolutely vital to establish control of their territory. This link explores the subject.

https://regporter.com/pei/2020/03/31/fortifications-in-new-france/

 

 

Domestic Architecture at Louisbourg

I begin my discussion of domestic architecture with the city and fortress of Louisbourg, on the rocky shore of Cape Breton Island. The French had turned their attention to Louisbourg in 1713 after losing Acadia and Newfoundland to the English by the Treaty of Utrecht. Their only possessions in the region were Cape Breton Island or Ile Royale and Ile Saint-Jean or Prince Edward Island. They had no interest at the time in Ile Saint-Jean and chose to build a fortress and town facing the Atlantic Ocean in a protected cove on Ile Royale. It took from 1719 to 1745 to construct most of the fortified town they had envisioned. With the fishing industry it became a thriving community.

The English attacked the town in 1745. The defenses should have withstood the attack, but Louisbourg was poorly situated on the seaside of very extensive low bogland. The French regained the town three years later by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle but in 1758 Louisbourg was attacked again and fell for the last time after seven weeks of fighting. To prevent re-use by the French the English destroyed much of the fortifications.

(In 1961 the Government of Canada set aside funds to rebuild a significant portion of the fortress and the city under the administration of Parks Canada. Today there is much to see and do at this special site.)

In the French National Archives there is a great panoramic drawing of Louisbourg produced by the military engineer Verrier the Younger which is rich in detail not only of the grand buildings but provides detailed images of working-class architecture on the edges of the town.

 

1731 – Veue de la ville de Louisbourg prise en dedans du port, Verrier fils fecit, coloured manuscript, 100 x 36 cm, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Accession: bnf/fr ark /12148/btv1b550002081.

Louisbourg – French National Archives

In the following details from the drawing, it is possible to see different kinds of domestic architecture. The first detail is of a section of the town itself within the walls.

In the shadow of the hospital with its spire and the administrative building with its tower are houses that belonged to the people – religious, military and administrators – who made things run. These buildings, some of which have been reconstructed in the restoration of Louisbourg, are typical of what one would have found in France at the time, constructed out of wood and stone in contemporary French styles. Servants were required in considerable numbers to make things function in a manner that was socially acceptable. The furniture would be middle class French in the new Rococo or Louis XV style that had taken over public taste. The extent of this restoration of the town is visible in this photo by Parks Canada.

Many of these houses, even in the town, had herb and vegetable gardens in their yard, as well as beds for ornamental flowers. Here are such gardens from the reconstructions by Parks Canada begun in the 1960s.

 

Here is a detail showing how even simple domestic gardens were planted in a formal arrangement, usually cross-shaped, sometimes with a sundial at the crossing. This tradition was very ancient in urban settings and has its origins in the castles and fortified towns of the Middle Ages. This formal garden shape had originated in Ancient Rome and was passed on to secular European spaces by the great monasteries that preserved learning and culture throughout the Middle Ages. All these gardens and private spaces were enclosed by palisade fences.

 

The Verrier panorama, quite unusually I think, goes to considerable trouble to document all the fishermen’s houses on either side of the Citadel. Here is the suburb leading up to the main city gate called la Porte Dauphine.

Along with the wharves and the fish processing sheds, near the water’s edge is the village. There is quite a variety of house styles from grand to very humble. They are mostly built of wood and have the snow-shedding high-pitched roofs of Northern France. All have chimneys coming out of the central portion of the house. These are compound chimneys with numerous flues to service the fireplaces found in all the major rooms.  The bases of these chimneys were huge and the superstructure of slanting vents for the fires very complicated. Here is a diagram showing an Eighteenth Century cross section of a chimney serving two fireplaces downstairs, and one upstairs. All the smoke and gasses escaped from a huge chimney throat.

 

In the cellar – these early French houses would have had no basements – there would be a massive base supporting the weight of all the upper masonry.

The third detail from this panorama I want to show you is La Pointe de Rochefort, not so much a fishing enclave but a gradual extension of the town outside the walls. For the most part the houses here are more substantial, some walled and containing fine formal vegetable/flower gardens. Even a small house next to a fishing processing shack has an enclosed garden.

All these details that we have skipped over quickly are not in any way indigenous constructions, but are all based on architecture from the various parts of France that sent out these colonists.

 

I do not have any information on the interior arrangements of these homes and, at the moment, do not have access to excavation reports that would help reconstruct such plans. We know, from eye-witness accounts at the village of Beaubassin, that the simpler houses consisted of one or two rooms with built-in bed cupboards for the adults. I will discuss this in detail in the post dedicated to Beaubassin and Beausejour.

These detailed drawings by Verrier give us an exceptionally clear picture of what the various kinds of houses ordinary people lived in. They varied from the most humble structures to imposing houses with fenced-in grounds and even grand entrances flanked by hipped roof pavilions. It would be deeply interesting to know who lived in these houses and their daily round of activities was managed.

 

Landscape and Vegetation

A subject that has received very little attention by scholars over the years is the various ways in which the landscape of settlement inserted in the wilderness changed the local topography. Settlements had to be near water and so suitable protected coves with sufficiently deep harbours became the sites of towns. The wilderness was cleared away to create the towns and villages so that the whole aspect of the landscape changed. Even the creation of a small farm near the water changed the look of the land.

As well as topographical change the French brought with them ornamental trees, shrubs, flowers, vegetables and herbs to remind them of home and to provide a familiar diet. Some of the plants that could stand the climate escaped into the wilderness and changed the vegetation of millennia. It is my belief that any study of settlement should also include an examination of how landscape and vegetation were affected by all this activity.

I will conclude this first post on French and Acadian domestic architecture by bringing to your attention a small book privately printed on mimeographed sheets in 1975 by John Erskine. It was brought to my attention many years ago by a biologist at Mount Allison University called Heinrich Harries, who thought that it was an unknown treasure not present in the resources that discussed Acadian topography. It is from a photocopy I made in the late 1970s that I produced this digitised edition of Erskine’s book so that those interested in how the French changed the landscape and changed the ancient botanical structure in that landscape. You can access a copy either from my home page or following this link.

https://regporter.com/pei/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Erskine-Remains-of-the-French-Period-in-Nova-Scotia.pdf 

 

John Erskine was an extraordinary man. In the days when there was no such thing as a provincial archaeologist, he took on that role and published all his investigations of both prehistoric and historic archaeological sites. He was a passionate botanist and a great topographer and spent years of his life tramping through settlements and the wilderness in search of European vegetation that took root and spread throughout the province. It is through his eyes that I learned to look at the historic landscape, not only through its architecture but also the vegetation that now surrounds it.

 

Resources

The following list of books and articles have been consulted over the years to gain some knowledge of historical events and especially architecture and material culture. I have the majority of these works in my collection except for a few difficult to find editions which I consulted in public collections.

______________________ A Catalogue of the Winthrop Pickard Bell Collection of Acadiana, Mount Allison University, Sackville, 1972.

______________________ Le Mobilier Structurant, Fiche21, 2019-05-04, Taken from this now inactive link:   www.culture.gouv.fr/Bretagne/actualite/itpe/images/fiches/Fiche21.pdf 

______________________ Les Cahiers du Patrimoine: Neuville Architecture Traditionnelle, Ministère des Affaires culturelles, Direction générale du Patrimoine, Québec, 1976.

Arsenault, Bona, Histoire des Acadiens, Editions Leméac, Ottawa, 1978.

Arsenault, Georges, translated by Sally Ross, Acadian Traditions on Candlemas Day: Candles, Pancakes and House Visits, The Acorn Press, Charlottetown, 2012.

Arsenault, Georges, compiler, Bibliographie acadienne, La Société Saint-Thomas d’Aquin, [Summerside], 1980.

Arsenault, Georges, Complaintes Acadiennes de L’Ile-du-Prince-Edouard, Les Editions Leméac Inc., Ottawa, 1980.

Arsenault, Georges, La Chanson du Pays, La Société Saint-Thomas d’Aquin, Summerside, 1983.

Arsenault, Georges, and Linda Lowther, L’Acadie de L’Ile-du-Prince-Edouard: 300 ans d’histoire, Chenelière Education, Montreal, 2021.

Babineau, Rene, editor, LeJeune O.M.I., le R. P. L., Tableaux Synoptiques de l’Histoire de L’Acadie …, 1918, Fascicule Spécial (1500-1760), L’Action Sociale Ltée, Quebec, n.d.

Bernard, C.S.V., Antoine, Histoire de la Survivance Acadienne 1755-1935, Les Clercs de Saint-Viateur, Montreal, 1935.

Boucher, Sandrine, “L’Acadie vue par Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, Ingénieur Hydrographe du Dépôt des Cartes, Plans et Journaux de la Marine. Sources et Enjeux de la Représentation d’une Colonie Perdue,” p. 121-136, Laboulais, Isabelle, ed., Les Usages des Cartes (XVIIe-XIXe siècle), Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, Open Edition Books, 2008.

Boudreau, Daniel Rev. et Chiasson, Anselme Rev., Chansons d’Acadie 1êre Série, Editions des Aboiteaux, Moncton, n.d.

Boudreau, Daniel Rev. et Chiasson, Anselme Rev., Chansons d’Acadie 2e Série, Editions des Aboiteaux, Moncton, 1979.

Boudreau, Daniel Rev. et Chiasson, Anselme Rev., Chansons d’Acadie 3e Série, Editions des Aboiteaux, Moncton, 1977.

Bourque, J. Rodolphe, Social and Architectural Aspects of Acadians in New Brunswick, Research and Development Branch, Historical Resources Administration, Government of New Brunswick, Fredericton, 1971.

Brasseaux, Carl A., The Founding of New Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1765-1803, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 1987.

Brun, Régis, with Bernard LeBlanc and Armand Robichaud, Les Bâtiments Anciens de la Mer Rouge, Michel Henry Éditeur Ltée, Moncton, 12988.

Butzer, Karl W., “French Wetland Agriculture in Atlantic Canada and Its European Roots: Different Avenues to Historical Diffusion,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 451-470, 2002.

Cameron, Christina and Monique Trépanier, Vieux Québec: son Architecture Intérieur, Collection Mercure/Mercury Series, No. 40, History Division, National Museum of Man, Ottawa, 1986.

Campbell, Carol, and Smith, James F., Necessaries and Sufficiences: Planter Society in Londonderry, Onslow and Truro Townships, 1761-1780, Cape Breton University Press, Sydney, N.S., 2011.

Campbell, Clare, and Robert Summerby-Murray, Land and Sea: Environmental History in Atlantic Canada, Acadiensis Press, Fredericton, 2013.

Campey, Lucille H., Planters, Paupers, and Pioneers: English Settlers in Atlantic Canada, A Natural Heritage Book, A Member of the Dundurn Group, Toronto, 2010.

Casgrain, L’Abbé H.-R, Une Seconde Acadie, Imprimerie de L.-J Demers & Frère, Quebec, 1894.

Casgrain, L’Abbé H.-R, Un Pèlerinage au pays d’Evangéline, Imprimerie de L.-J Demers & Frère, Quebec, 1887.

Clark, Andrew Hill, Acadia – The Geography of Early Nova Scotia to 1760, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1968.

Clarke, Ernest, The Siege of Fort Cumberland, 1776: An Episode in the American Revolution, McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 1995.

Conrad, Margaret ed., Making Adjustments: Change and Continuity in Planter Nova Scotia, 1759-1800, Acadiensis, 1991.

Daigle, Jean, (direction), Les Acadiens des Maritimes: Etudes Thematiques, Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes, Moncton, 1980.

Dawson, Joan, The Mapmaker’s Eye: Nova Scotia Through Early Maps, co-published by Nimbus Publishing Limited and The Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, 1988.

Doucet, Paul, sous la direction, Vie de nos Ancêtres en Acadie: L’habitat et le mobilier, Editions d’Acadie, Moncton, 1980.

Dunn, Brenda, The Acadians of Minas, Studies in Archaeology Architecture and History, National Parrs and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, 1985.

Dupont, Jean-Claude, Héritage d’Acadie, Editions Leméac Inc., Ottawa, 1977.

Dupont, Jean-Claude, Histoire Populaire de l’Acadie, Editions Leméac Inc., Ottawa, 1979.

Erskine, John, The French Period in Nova Scotia A.D. 1500-1758 and Present Remains: a Historical, Archaeological and Botanical Survey, privately published by the author in mimeograph format, Wolfville, N.S., 1975.

Gagnon, Ernest, Chansons Populaires du Canada, based on 1880 edition, Librarie Beauchemin Ltée, 1908.

Glénisson, Caroline Montel, Un tour de France canadien, Les Editions La Presse Ltée, Montreal, 1980.

Gooding, S. James, An Introduction to British Artillery in North America, Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1988.

Gooding, S.J., (introduction) Military Exercises: 1730, Museum Restoration Service, West Hill, Ontario, 1962.

Gosselin, Paul-E, L’Empire Français d’Amerique, Les Editions Ferland, Quebec, 1963.

Graf, Maria-Theresia and Chmura, Gail L., “Reinterpretation of past sea-level variation of the Bay of Fundy,” The Holocene 20,1, pp. 7-11, 2010.

Griffiths, Naomi, The Acadians: Creation of a People, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, Toronto, 1973.

Griffiths, Naomi E. S., The Contexts of Acadian History, 1686-1784, The 1988 Winthrop Pickard Bell Lectures in Maritime Studies, published for the Centre for Canadian Studies, Mount Allison University by McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 1992.

Griffiths, Naomi E. S., L’Acadie de 1686 à 1784- Contexte d’une histoire, Editions d’Acadie, Moncton, 1997.

Griffiths, N. E. S., From Migrant to Acadian, A North American Border People, 1604-1755, Canadian Institute for Research on Public Policy and Public Administration, University of Moncton, McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 2005.

Hale, Robert, Journal of a Voyage to Nova Scotia made in 1731 by Robert Hale of Beverley, printed from the original manuscript now in possession of the American Antiquarian Society, Historical Collections of the Essex Institute, Vol. XLII, No. 3, 1906.

Houlding, J.A., French Arms Drill of the 18th Century: 1703-1760, Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1988.

Jennings, John, Tending the Flock: Bishop Joseph-Octave Plessis and Roman Catholics in early 19th century New Brunswick, New Ireland Press, Fredericton, 1998.

Johnson, A.G.B., Endgame 1758: The Promise, the Glory, and the Despair of Louisbourg’s Last Decade, Cape Breton University Press, Sydney, Nova Scotia, 2007.

Johnston, A.J.B., “Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban: Reflections on His Fame, His Fortifications, and His Influence,” French Colonial History, Vol. 3, Michigan State University press, 2003.

Johnston – Vauban 2003

Jones, Elizabeth, Gentlemen and Jesuits: Quest for Glory and Adventure, Nimbus Publishing, Halifax, 2002.

Kennedy, Gregory, “Marshland Colonization in Acadia and Poitou during the 17th Century,” Acadiensis, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2013.

Laframboise, Yves, L’Architecture Traditionnelle au Quebec: La Maison aux 17e et 18e siècles, Les Editions de L’Homme, Montreal, 1975.

LeBlanc, Emery, Les Acadiens, Les Editions de l’Homme, Montreal, 1963.

Lennox, Jeffers, “Nova Scotia Lost and Found: The Acadian Boundary Negotiation and Imperial Envisioning, 1750-1755,” Acadiensis, XL, No. 2, pp. 3-31, 2011.

Lescarbot, Marc, Nova Francia: A Description of Acadia, 1606, translated by P. Erondelle, 1609, introduction by H.P. Biggar, The Broadway Travellers Series, George Routeledge & Sons, London, 1928.

Lessard, Michel and Huguette Marquis, Encyclopédie de la Maison Québécoise, Les Editions de l”Homme, Montreal, 1972.

Lessard, Michel and Gilles Villandré, La Maison Traditionnelle au Quebec, Les Ēditions de L’Homme, Montreal, 1974.

Mahaffie Jr., Charles D., A Land of Discord Always: Acadia from its Beginning to the Expulsion of Its People 1604-1755, Down East Books, Camden, Maine, 1995.

Marshall, Dianne, Heroes of the Acadian Resistance: The Story of Joseph Beausoleil Broussard and Pierre II Surette 1702-1765, Formac Publishing Company Limited, Halifax, 2011.

Moogk, Peter N., Building a House in New France: An Account of the Perplexities of Client and Craftsmen in Early Canada, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1977.

Muller, John, A Treatise Containing the Elementary Part of Fortification, Regular and Irregular, John Nourse at the Lamb, London, 1756, Reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Ottawa, Ontario, 1968.

Muller, John, A Treatise of Artillery: Containing …, John Millar, Whitehall, 1780, reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1977.

Naftel, William (based on his 1969 Parks Canada inventory), Inventory of the Manuscript Collection: Fort Beausejour National Historic Park transferred on Long Term Loan to Mount Allison University, typescript, 1970 and 1979.

Normand, Charles, Le Vignole des Ouvriers, ou Method Facile pour tracer les Cinq Ordres D’Architecture … Chez L’Auteur, Place du Parvis Notre Dame, Paris, 1828.

Patterson, Frank H., Acadian Tatamagouche and Fort Franklin, Truro Printing & Publishing Ltd., Truro, 1947.

Petto, Christine Marie, When France Was King of Cartography: The Patronage and Production of Maps in Early Modern France, Lexington Books, 2007.

Prévost, Robert, La France des Acadiens, Editions d’Acadie, Moncton, [1993].

Proulx, Gilles, Entre France et Nouvelle-France, Editions Marcel Broquet Inc. jointly with Parks Canada and le Centre d’édition du gouvernement du Canada, La Prairie, Quebec, 1984.

Rempel, John I., Building with Wood and Other Aspects of Nineteenth-Century Building in Central Canada, Revised Edition, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1980.

Robinson, John, and Rispin, Thomas, Journey Through Nova-Scotia, containing a Particular Account of the Country and its Inhabitants, C. Etherington, 1774, republished by the Ralph Pickard Bell Library, Mount Allison University, 1981.

Sauer, Carl O., Seventeenth Century North America, Turtle Island, Berkeley, 1980.

Schmeisser, Barbara M., Building a Colonial Outpost on Ile St. Jean Port La Joye, 1720-1758, Atlantic Service Centre, Parks Canada, 2000.

Sigogne, Le R.P. Jean-Mandé, Les Français du Sud-Ouest de la Nouvelle Ecosse, Librarie Centrale, Besançon, 1905.

Trueman, Howard, The Chignecto Isthmus and its First Settlers, William Briggs, Toronto, 1902.

Vachon, André, with Victorin Chabot and André Desrosiers, Taking Root: Canada from 1700 to 1760 in Records of Our History, Public Archives Canada, 1985.

Varennes, Fernand de, Lieux et monuments historiques de l’Acadie, Editions d’Acadie, Moncton, 1987.

Vauban, Traité des sièges et de l’attaque des places, Manuscript, Smithsonian Institution, 1700.

1700 Vauban – Traité́ des siéges et de l’attaque des places – Smithsonian

Walsh, H. H., The Church in the French Era from Colonization to the British Conquest, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1966.

Webster, John Clarence, The Forts of Chignecto: A study of the Eighteenth Century conflict between France and Great Britain in Acadia [With Plates, Including Portraits, and Maps], Privately Published, 1930.

Webster, John Clarence, Joseph Frederick Wallet Desbarres and the Atlantic Neptune, Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa, 1927.

Webster, John Clarence, The Life of Joseph Frederick Wallet Desbarres, privately printed, Shediac, N.B., 1933.

Webster, John Clarence, The Career of the Abbe Le Loutre with his translated autobiography, privately printed, Shediac, N.B., 1933.

Webster, John Clarence, Acadia at the End of the Seventeenth Century: Letters Journals and Memoirs of Joseph Robineau de Villebon, Commandant in Acadia, 1690–1700 and Other Contemporary Documents, Saint John: Monographic Series No. I, The New Brunswick Museum, 1934.

Webster, John Clarence, translated by Alice Webster, The Siege of Beausejour in 1755: A Journal of the Attack on Beausejour written by Jacau De Fiedmont, Artillery Officer and Acting Engineer at the Fort, Historical Studies No. 1, Publications of the New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, 1936.

Webster, John Clarence, Editor, Journals of Beausejour: Diary of John Thomas (Apr. 1755 to Dec 1755) and Journal of Louis de Courville (1755), Public Archives of Nova Scotia, Halifax, 1937.

Webster, John Clarence, The Life of Thomas Pichon, “The Spy of Beausejour,” PANS, Halifax, 1937.

Williams, Henry Lionel & Ottalie K. Williams, Old American Houses 1700-1850: How to Restore, Remodel and Reproduce Them, Bonanza Books, New York, 1957.

Wolfe, General James, General Wolfe’s Instructions to Young Officers …, Second Edition, London, 1780, reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Ottawa, Ontario, 1967.

Wynn, Graeme, “W.F. Ganong, A.H. Clark and the Historical Geography of Maritime Canada, ” Acadiensis, Vol. 10, N0. 2, pp. 5-28, 1981.